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Chicago Style Guide: Quick Reference

How to write an academic paper using Chicago Style Formatting

Essential Elements

As a rule of thumb, students should always record the following information when working with sources:

1) Name of Author   2) Title of Work   3) Year or Date of Publication   4) Publisher   5) Place of Publication

The information required for a proper citation can vary, though, so it’s important to follow the specific model for a given source type. You can find numerous examples of citations and examine sample papers in this portion of the guide.

Quotations and Subscripts

See this link about Paraphrasing when using Chicago style.

In Chicago style, writers must use footnotes and subscripts when creating quotations:

A quotation always must be enclosed in quotation marks and a superscript number inserted directly after the final quotation mark. The subscript refers readers to bibliographic information either at the foot of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes).  Limit your use of direct quotations. Use them only when you want to capture authenticity or the impact of the original source.


Cynthia Hahn claims a new interpretation of Joseph’s role “as powerful and dignified pater familias will lead to an understanding of the [Merode]triptych as a vision of the sacral quality of marriage and the family.”¹

¹Cynthia Hahn, “Joseph Will Perfect, Mary Enlighten and Jesus Save Thee: The Holy Family as Marriage Model in the Merode Triptych,” The Art Bulletin 68 (1986): 55.

A shortened footnote only uses the author’s name


²Hahn, “Joseph Will Perfect,” 63

Block Quotes

A block format is required for quotations longer than 8 lines or 100 words or more.

Find more directions about how to use Chicago style from this handbook created for student use:

Retrieved from  The Chicago Manual of Style  Online.


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